(Re) Excavating the Medieval Kiln at Newport, Pembrokeshire

Work on the Memorial Hall in Newport, near Fishguard in Pembrokeshire has moved on another stage as we have been able to begin re-excavating and recording the medieval kiln in the basement. 

Having got the appropriate permissions, the aim has been to clear away 95 years of dust and debris and reveal the top of the kiln, its flues and floor. This will then allow the next stage of conservation and preservation to proceed. As I explained earlier ((The Medieval Kiln at Newport, Pembrokeshire, posted 7 Feb 2016), two kilns were found in 1920 during the construction of the hall and after examination and recording by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, one was preserved under the floor of the stage. Wheeler published a plan and elevation in 1923 which showed the complete firebox, underfloor flue structure and warechamber floor of a round single-firebox kiln. Current dating would be late 15th or early 16th century. The preserved kiln was scheduled as an ancient monument but became more or less forgotten despite the republication of Wheeler’s drawing in the 1970s. 

It has only been with the current project to renovate the hall that the kiln and its history has resurfaced. The Hall Committee and local people have been keen to celebrate the kiln and their own history and make it better known. A team of specialists including David Dawson and myself have begun to help them achieve that. 

As it stands before we work on it the kiln consists of a clearly visible firebox and a central plinth supporting a flat area with a few punctures in an arc to one side. This seemed likely to be the kiln floor with some of its flues rising from the large ones visible beyond the firebox below. A survey by Karen Slade suggested that the flue structure was closed off about half way across the area and that a small opening at the rear seemed to indicate a second set of flues and by implication a second firebox hidden under the unexcavated area of the basement and a light cross wall.

What follows is a quick summary of our investigation:

Initial clearing of the north side revealed a triangular pit containing rubble, blue and white China, a clay-pipe stem and a leather boot sole. It bottomed out where it hit big chunks of slate and the inner face of the plinth. Tidied up, it had a flat face on the centre line of the firebox and therefore appeared to be an attempt to cross-section the interior of the kiln by archaeologists. The surprise beyond it was that the rest of the top seemed to be hard packed and devoid of modern artefacts as if the excavation had progressed no further. The exception being the openings into the flues on the north side (where Bill is poking his selfie-stick) and a small one on the south. 


As the north side was exposed the flues began to be revealed. The hard packed material in the centre seemed to overlie flat slate slabs leaving a narrow channel supported by the corbelling and bars below. The selfie-stick quickly confirmed that the second firebox was present (under the cross-wall and the photographer’s feet). The centre of the kiln looked worryingly empty but the biggest surprise was the arc of the kiln wall which suggested an oval kiln rather than a round one. It seemed that Mortimer Wheeler’s drawing was a very crude thumbnail tidied up for publication.


Trowelling revealed the slate rim of the floor and the flue channel and openings but the inner floor was elusive. The elyptical shape of the kiln became more evident, pushing further back and disappearing below the shallow cross-wall. Also more apparent was the thickness of the kiln walls – the narrow areas either side of the firebox seem to be the result of the intrusion of the foundation trenches for the hall above. Odd things began to appear above the firebox. 

This is the point we decided to stop. The kiln chamber is 2m x 2.5m, its floor corbelled out from a central slate and rubble drum. The two fireboxes (one invisible but complete and empty of debris) feed two u-shaped flues closed off from each other that open into the chamber through holes around the edge of the floor. The floor proper is missing except around the excavated firebox. Here it consists of fired compacted clay and two of the flue openings are shaped from modelled clay (there is another modelled vent at the other end). This indicates that the upper levels of external stonework are the lowest part of the ware-chamber. The notch in the wall and the large slabs above the firebox are interesting.

There are various thoughts growing out of this. The kiln is much bigger than the Mortimer Wheeler report suggested and although structurally similar, very different. It seems to have received only brief archaeological attention in 1921 and the most plausible conclusion has to be that this is not the kiln recorded by Wheeler but the second unrecorded one.

The whole structure is being laser scanned as we go along by Bill Stebbing (Scan to Plan). Below are some screen-shots. The first shows the area above the west firebox and the fired clay flues and floor. The other is a cross-section of the main flue showing the central drum corbelled out towards the outer wall to support the floor. For more go to Pembrokeshire Kiln on YouTube. 

  

Laser scans of the Newport medieval kiln. Copyright Scan to Plan 2016

More news as we go along. For more information on the project as a whole see the Newport Memorial Hall website 

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Puzzle Jugs and Puzzling Jugs

When is a puzzle jug not a puzzle jug ? Amongst folk and country potters from the early 17th century onwards and the makers of delftware and later stonewares in England, the puzzle-jug has been a popular form for gifts and commemorative pieces. Drinking novelties, if ever actually used, they aim to confuse the user and spill drink over their victims. On some, inscriptions dare the drinker on pain of a forfeit. Their complexity varies, the ones from Donyatt in Somerset being the simplest. As special pieces they have survived disproportionately well and they are represented in many museum and private collections.

Puzzle Jug dated 1877. Yorkshire, probably Burton-in-Lonsdale.

Puzzle Jug. Donyatt, Somerset. 1852.

The reader may query my start date for these pieces. Surely the puzzle jug is a much earlier phenomenon. Are there not many medieval examples in museums and amongst archaeological assemblages?

The answer is no. What there are are labels.  There a range of  ceramic objects made in the later Middle Ages and the early modern period that are characterised by the incorporation of tubes in one way or another. These are often attached to the vessel wall and sometimes involve concealment by incorporation into decoration or hollow handles. The function of these pieces puzzled antiquarians and nineteenth century collectors and resulting in a generic classification as puzzle jugs alongside their more familiar cousins. No link was made to posset pots although these too sometimes included tubes. Posset pots were classified as cup forms and their function was not seen as mysterious in any way. The tube (or tubes) simply allowed the user access to the lower part of the contents without disturbing the upper part. A general link was made to drinking and parties.

The best known medieval pot of this kind is the magnificent and exotic late 13th century  Saintonge jug in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum in Exeter. Less familiar but still pretty impressive is the Redcliffe jug in Bristol City Museum. Both are catalogued as puzzle jugs but they are actually structurally quite different and represent two distinct vessel types. The common ground is that they are for pouring liquids, they have spouts and handles and their structure incorporates a tube.

The Exeter ‘Puzzle Jug.’ Saintonge, France. 1250-1300AD. Royal Albert Museum Exeter.

The Exeter jug is visually very similar to the familiar post-medieval pots in having a tubular handle linking bottom and top and a pierced neck between shoulder and rim. The neck is an ornate galleried tower whose windows are populated with musicians. There is no doubt that this is a table piece meant to attract attention. As reconstructed, the jug has two chambers, the lower part of the body is fully enclosed with two openings, one from the base of the holow handle and the other into the tubular spout. Above the pierced neck the upper chamber is an open, vertical sided bowl which has a small hole in its lower edge which opens into the top of the hollow handle. The spout, which has a modelled animal head, rises from the lower chamber up to the level of the base of the upper one.

The Redcliffe ‘puzzle Jug’ Redcliffe, Bristol. Bristol City Museum and Art Gallery.


The Bristol jug is large and imposing with three spouts at its rim each modelled as a male head. The two on the flanks of the jug are bridge spouts opening directly into the vessel. Each has a body drawn below it with applied coils. The spout at the front has no opening through the rim but sits at the top of a tube which runs down the front of the vessel to an opening near the base of the interior. Over the tube is modelled a full figure with a head like those on the spouts and gripping a ring between two hands.

Neither jug imcorporates any trick or subtlety to confuse or amuse. The Exeter jug has an open bowl at the top as an access point to fill or with liquid, an enclosed storage chamber at the bottom and a spout to pour with. The Bristol one is a normal jug form with two spouts on the sides of the rim that provide the means to pour from the top and a third at h front supplied by a tube that allows the user to pour from the bottom.

The latter is clearly similar in function to the kinds of objects usually labelled posset pots. These are most commonly seen as tin-glazed earthenware/delftware but there is a long tradition of large lidded pieces in lead-glazed earthenware too with some splendid ones from Wales and the Midlands. The spouts cannot be used to pour but must be sucked. Nonetheless, the basic principle is the same except that the Redcliffe Jug is best suited to serving rather than direct consumption.

The Exeter jug is similarly best suited to a serving role. It is important to remember that this pot comes from Southern France. There is an extensive range of drinking and serving vessels from all around the Mediterranean and the old Ottoman Empire to which this pot seems to me to belong.  In France the gargoulette and in Spain the botijo are enclosed pouring forms that perform both drinking and table functions. There are a lot of variations across the wider area but the essential idea is consistent. In the east particularly a hollow handle is a common feature.

Botijos. Left, late 19th century. Antonio Fernandez, Rambla. Spain. Right, 19th/early 20th century, Spain or Portugal.

The two examples above are different in form to the Exeter jug but very similar in their mechanics and their functions. A filling point is provided by adding a small thrown ring or vessel. The one on the right has a pierced filter. The neck can be lightly plugged with textile to filter the water of whatever else going into it. Both are everted to take a cloth of paper cover tied over them. Opposite is a narrow spout. The main chamber is fully enclosed from the elements. Botijos are generally associated with water or wine but they are can be used to store and pour a variety of things including particularly oils. The Exeter jug is particularly effective as a storage vessel for oils because the two tubes allow only a minimal surface area to oxidise as long as it it kept full. In use the top would ideally be covered as is often the cas with botijos.

There are a range of other puzzling pots in museums and collections worth scrutinising. There are lots of interesting folk/traditional pots across Europe and the Mediterranean for comparison – and of course not just pots. Anyway enough.

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Heinrich Dressel exhibition in Rome

The new Museum of the Imperial Fori in Trajan’s Market in Rome is designed to explain the history and structures of the sequence of fori alongside the Capitoline Hill. Trajan’s Market is remarkable in the survival of several stories of lock up shops, terraces and streets above the forum within which Trajan’s Column stands. 

    
In adapting parts of the building to a ‘museum’ role there have been some clever curatorial decisions. The main hall opening of Via IV Novembre has been given a plate glass front and treated like a contemporary up-market shop. The shop units are used a individual display spaces to set out aspects of the story of the Roman fori but the current exhibition ‘L’Eleganza del Cibo – Tales of Food and Fashion’ interacts with that and uses the space as if it were a modern shopping mall. It works very well. Versace et al sit elegantly amongst Trajanic marble and weathered doorways. Yeongju Sung’s vegetable garments are extraordinary. Rather than being a formal museum space and ‘ancient site’ it is animated in a very accessible way http://www.leleganzadelcibo.com. 

Below, in medieval cistern towards the back of the building is an unexpected bonus for archaeologists and ceramiphiles. If you work with Roman pottery for more than a short time you come across Dragendorff and Dressel classifications for Roman pottery forms. Both were German scholars who recognised the very structured patterns of Roman pottery over time and recognised that these could be used for dating and to study trade. Hans Dragendorff concentrated on Samian wares and Heinrich Dressel on amphorae. 

To find Heinrich Dressel a subject for an exhibition is surprising – who apart from archaeological pottery specialists has heard of him? It is great to see him celebrated and in such style.   

Dressel recognised that by combining he study of the shapes of amphorae, the many stamps and inscriptions on them and the dated contexts from which ch then came, that a systematic catalogue could be built. The exhibition includes a film of an actor playing Dressel being inspired and examples of his illustrations. The medieval cisterns allow the key exhibits – a fantastic collection of amphorae of many varieties – to be presented as if in a great wine cellar. 

  
  
   
 

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Bristol’s Modernist Architecture – Queen’s Court

Queen’s Court, Queen’s Road, Clifton, Bristol

In 1937 a large triangular site on Queens Road in Clifton, a hundred yards uphill from the landmark Victoria Rooms became the site of the first large-scale luxury block of flats built in Bristol. Of plum-red brick with white stucco details and Crittall windows, it is of a type that in London became the characteristic form for some areas. Not so often perhaps a dramatic arrow-shaped example with a feature balcony on the top floor. In Bristol such buildings are much less common and Queens Court was presented to the public as a new and exciting concept.

QUEENS Ct Brochure 1

Artist’s impression of Queen’s Court. 1937.

Queens Court web

Queen’s Court, Queens Road, Clifton, Bristol. Alec French, 1937. At present spoiled by the tree at the front (2016).


This is another building that has come to my attention partly because of researching the Bristol furniture manufacturer P E Gane Ltd. Director Crofton Gane had employed Bauhaus furniture designer and architect Marcel Breuer in 1935-6  and worked with him on several major projects including remodelling and furnishing his own house and making all the Breuer furniture for the Ventris Flat in Highpoint. Breuer joined Walter Gropius in the USA later in 1936 and Gane cast around for another prominent interior designer/architect to work with. This time it was the New Zealander Wells Coates.

Queens Court was designed by Alec French and is an eight-storey V-shaped block of 74 one, two and three-bed flats, the larger more luxurious ones at the prow. Twenty balconies along the sides are each shared by two flats and contribute to an ocean-liner look. On the ground floor of the main Queens Road frontage a row of small shops offered a use range of services. Within the V a garage provides parking for residents. Uniformed porters, fitted kitchens with refrigerators and electric lifts were provided. A two-bed flay cost £150-200 p.a. and the penthouse £350.

Queens Court rear web

Queens Court was promoted as offering a luxurious new style of living and Gane’s were contracted to furnish show flats. Wells Coates was a leading proponent of flats as the future of urban living and was interested in designing unitary furnishings to go alongside them. He had designed the interiors of the Lawn Road flats in Hampstead for Isokon where Walter Gropius and others had been living.

QUEENS CT Brochure 10

The Flexunit Flat. Wells Coates, 1936. The specimen flat fitted with Coates Flexunit furniture range was exhibited in the P E Gane College Green showrooms.


Crofton Gane had two ranges of unitary furniture designed in the early 30s by the companies own designer J P Hully. The idea that a fixed range of adaptable components could be combined to furnish a home was a popular new concept in the 30s and  is the parent of IKEA today. For Billy, read FIT-IN No. 5. Wells Coates was commissioned to provide a new range which was based on the Lawn Road designs and named Flexunit. The new pieces included built in electric fires and double-sided island units. A show flat built in the College Green shop was then presented both as a showcase for the new range and also as a prequel to the show flats at Queens Court.

Queens Court windows web

Queen’s Court has had a varied history since the 30s and been quite run-down at times. A recent refurbishment has given it some of its dignity back. The little row of shops underneath still thrives. The pergola on the end of the penthouse has gone but the Crittall windows are still intact to give it the classic look. Wells Coates as an architect and designer is less well known than he should be and his involvement with Crofton Gane and in Bristol needs more research. The Cresta Silks shop on Park Street, destroyed in 1940 is another of his projects.

For more on Wells Coates see Farouk Elgohary’s 1966 PhD thesis ‘Wells Coates and his position in the Beginning of the Modern Movement in England.’ Thanks to Chris Yeo, Curator at the Ken Stradling Collection in Bristol for the photos of the Queen’s Court brochure and for drawing my attention to it. The collection has examples of J P Hully’s unitary furniture (including FIT-IN No. 5) as well as other P E Gane furniture from the 1930s.

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Bristol’s Modernist Architecture – The All Electric House

The All Electric House – Stoke Bishop, Bristol.

I have been writing an essay about Marcel Breuer and his involvement with Bristol furniture manufacturers P E Gane Ltd in the 1935-6. Breuer was one of a group of designers and architects from the Bauhaus who came to London as refugees in the mid-30s. They became part of a network of contemporary artists, designers and architects in Britain often active in the Design and Industries Association which sought to modernise British design and public taste. Amongst this group was P E Gane’s new director Crofton Gane who was closely involved in the DIA and an ardent Modernist. He saw himself as an evangelist for contemporary design in the West of England and South Wales, balancing that against the practical demands of running a successful furniture manufacturing and retail business. Gane saw an opportunity, and commissioned Breuer to design furniture pro types for him, completely remodelling and furnishing the interior of his Bristol house and designing and building a ground breaking show pavilion for the 1936 Royal Agricultural Show in Ashton Court.

Researching P E Gane Ltd has drawn attention to the range of less well-known projects and ideas that the company was involved in between the First World War and the destruction of the business in the Blitz in 1940. Gane’s held regular exhibitions of new design in their College Green showrooms and designed a number of show house interiors for property developments. Amongst these is the All Electric House for which P E Gane Ltd designed the interiors.

People in Bristol are aware of classic Modernist houses like the Concrete House in Westbury-on-Trym (Connell, Ward and Lucas, 1934-5) but there are less well known treasures lurking in the suburbs. The All Electric House was commissioned by the Bristol Branch of the Electrical Association for Women and built in 1935. A local architect Adrian Powell was chosen for the task and worked to a detailed client brief.

AE House edited ELECTRIC1

The All Electric House, Stoke Bishop, Bristol, 1935. Design for Today, Jan 1936. p.5.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The EAW aimed to demonstrate the potential of new electrical technology to make the lives of women less onerous. If you compare this small 4-bedroom house with the Concrete House or the Gane House, it differs in assuming that the domestic tasks are likely to be largely undertaken by the householder rather than maids and cooks.  Gane had Breuer revamp the whole house in theory but in practice the kitchen and service areas were left untouched. The middle classes after the First World War were far less able to rely on service than the earlier generation.

The house featured all kinds of electrical appliances and gadgets from an electric cooker, refrigerator and fires in every room to drying cupboards, electric clocks and food warmers. The reviewer in Design for Today, commented that design issues ‘were not subordinated to the propaganda interests of one industry.’ (Design for Today, Jan, 1936, p.7) P E Gane Ltd provided all the furnishings for the show house and Crofton was keen to show the latest stuff.

AE House edited mod4A

The dining area in the All Electric House, Stoke Bishop, Bristol. 1935. Furnishings by P E Gane Ltd. The steel furniture is all by PEL Ltd. P E Gane catalogue 1936.

The house featured a single long reception room divided into a living/soft-furnished area at the front and a more enclosed dining area with a serving hatch from the kitchen and a side view onto a sun-terrace. Gane set the dining area out with a neat fitted cupboard and tubular furniture by British manufacturer PEL (albeit copies of continental designs). Note the light fittings and the elegant plain rug. He is pragmatic and the other half of the room has a more decorative theme with a dramatic moon-shaped suite.

Apparently the house sold within the week of opening and was a critical success. In recent years it has been lovingly restored, even to the point of the front-graden planting. Lovely to see.

AE House 2016 IMG_0352

The All Electric House. Stoke Bishop, Bristol in 2016

It seems to be less well known that the EAW were brave enough to commission two All Electric Houses. The second one was about a mile away in Sneyd Park and was identical although not kitted out as a show house by Gane’s. Sadly it has suffered very badly over the years – I can’t bring myself to post a photo.

There is more information on the Electrical Association for Women and the house on the Institute for Engineering and Technology website and also the University of Westminster’s page ‘Electricity for Women – The EAW in the inter-war years.’. Thanks to Chris Yeo, Curator at the Ken Stradling Collection, Bristol for the black and white images.

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20th Century Tile Murals in Lisbon. Part 2 Eduardo Nery

My visit to the Avenida Infanta Santo in Lisbon was to see the four large tiles murals installed there in 1959 as part of a large public housing project (see the previous post). I had been lured there by a reference to them in a 1980s book on Portuguese tiles containing a brief mention and a couple of hazy colour plates. The chief target was the turquoise panel by Maria Keil.

Avenida Infanta Santo     Avenida IS Keil

Having got very slightly lost looking for the road, I came onto it part way up the hill and walked on up to the bend where the flats are. They are on a slight bend of a steep hill which made it hard to see the whole thing at once. I was confused then to come upon a wall of bright orange relief tiles which I had not expected, just below the housing project itself.

Avenida IS Nery 2

Avenida IS Nery 3

Avenida IS Nery 4

Avenida IS Nery 5

The extra wall and stairs were added below the original development in 1993-4 and the tiling designed by Eduardo Nery. It was part of the programme associated with Lisbon as European Capital of Culture. Nery was a Portuguese contributor to the Op Art scene producing Vasarely-like paintings from the 1960s and moving progressively into large scale public work both in tile and in cobbles. He been a major contributor to the revival of the patterned pavements of streets and public spaces in Lisbon. Here his bold oranges and use of relief is a fitting balance to Maria Keil’s luxurious blue-green panel at the opposite end of the development, the angularity and strength of colour echoing between them.

Having explored to the top of the hill and admired the work from the 1950s, I set off down hill again to find my way back to the tram. I was not expecting to see any more art – the Avenida Infanta Santo is pretty undistinguished. Or maybe not. I had got off at the wrong tram stop and had to cut through the side streets, missing the bottom of the hill and the junction of the Avenida with the main road from the city centre out to Belem. The city planners  decided to build an interchange and underpass system here in 2001-2. This is Portugal, why have a boring underpass when you have tiles! Who to commission but Eduardo Nery. Quite simply the best underpass I have ever seen. Amazing.

Avenida IS Nery 6

Avenida IS Nery 7 Avenida IS Nery 8

For more on Eduardo Nery (1928-2013) see his website

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20th Century Tile Murals in Lisbon – Part 1

A few years ago someone gave me a book called The Art of Azuleyo in Portugal (1988). It is illustrated mainly in black and white and not very exciting, but right at the back is a short chapter entitled Modern Tiles. It seemed there had been a significant revival of interest in architectural tiles in the 1950s that had resulted in some major public projects. The illustrations included two enormous panels by Maria Keil and Rolando Sá Nogueira for a public housing development in Lisbon built in 1959. Each murals covers a wall that supports a terrace two storeys above the street level and across which a flight of stairs runs diagonally. The author described the Keil piece as ‘one of the most monumental works of ajuleyos in Portugal.’ The design is particularly striking in the way it utilises and incorporates the treads and handrails of the stairs within itself.

Visiting Lisbon this spring, I made it my business to find time to locate these murals (the text mentioned a third by Júlio Pomar and Alice Jorge). I had of course done a bit more homework by now and established that there were four panels and that the were placed between five large blocks of flats on the Avenida Infanta Santo, a steep hill climbing away from the Tagus about half way between the centre of Lisbon and the tourist attractions of Belem. It is a residential suburb made up mainly of large blocks of flats and well off most visitor’s track.

Avenida Infanta Santo.jpg

As I do, I got off the tram at the wrong stop and had to work my way through the back streets, emerging onto the Avenida Infanta Santo about a quarter of the way up from the water. The Avenida is principally made up of large blocks of flats and is fairly charmless but the development of five great blocks at the crown of the hill lifts it with its self-confident boldness, and its two-tone pink paint. They were built between 1954-1959 and designed by architects Alberto José Pessoa, Hernâni Gandra and João Abel Manta. Le Corbusier inspired, they stand on slim legs at right-angles to the street and raised three storeys above it. Beneath them, two-storey shop units cut into the slope behind. On top of the shops, a terrace level steps down by stages as the flats descend the hill. The shops occupy two thirds of each street front, the other section being a retaining wall carrying a stairway to the upper level. The four retaining walls carry the tiled murals.

The four panels are linked by a broad theme of Portuguese culture and the relationship with the sea. Maria Keil’s panel ‘O Mar’ (The Sea) is at the top, its flickering diagonals making sails merge with the horizon and the waves with the structures of the wall and the stair. It is quite splendid. Sa Nogueira’s panel at the lower end takes the same subject in a more conventional and illustrative way. The row of lads sitting on the jetty are a nod to Keil’s awareness of the 3-dimensionality of the site. The third panel by Júlio Pomar and Alice Jorge illustrates the peoples of the Portuguese empire in a rather instructional way, kept apart from one another by irregular bands of paler tiles.

Avenida IS Keil.jpg

O Mar (The Sea). Maria Keil. 1959

Avenida 2.jpg

Carlos Botelho, 1959

Avenida IS Pomar Jorge.jpg

Júlio Pomar and Alice Jorge, 1959

Avenida IS Nogueira.jpg

Rolando Sé Nogueira, 1959

The artists commissioned were from a variety of backgrounds and included painters, printmakers and illustrators. Maria Keil was the one for whom architectural space was perhaps most natural and she was also responsible for the interiors of many of the Metro stations in Lisbon built in the 50s and 60s. Seeing the four together it is clear that she is able to think on a large scale and use and manipulate the architectural space with a confidence the others couldn’t match. I am so pleased I went to see them. If I am back with my students next year, I will endeavour to get them up the hill.

Avenida IS Keil 2.jpg

Avenida IS Nogueira 2.jpg

Nogueira’s panel is in poor condition but apparently a programme of restoration has been going on and damage to the others has already been repaired. Whilst these artists and their work are not well known outside Portugal, it is clear that they are appreciated here – despite my feeling intrepid and ‘off the beaten track,’ my visit was disturbed by a City Sightseeing open-topped bus.

In 1993, it appears that an additional staircase was added at the bottom of the hill and a new panel was commissioned from Eduardo Nery.

Avenida IS Nery.jpg

Eduardo Nery, 1993-4

Setting off down hill to find the tram back to town I was not expecting to see any more art but…  see 20th Century Tiled Murals in Lisbon Part 2 Eduardo Nery.

Meco, José, 1988. The Art of Azuleyo in Portugal. Portuguese Glazed Tiles. Bertrand Editora.

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